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Boosting powertrains to meet a changing heavy-duty emissions landscape

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) reduction have historically been the focus for heavy-duty truck OEMs, but the next round of emissions regulations will place much greater emphasis on CO2.

As a result, commercial vehicle manufacturers around the world are turning to Garrett to develop the innovative engine boosting systems that will help create the low carbon powertrains of the future.

This trend toward greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction is underpinned by the European Union’s first-ever CO2 standard for medium and heavy-duty trucks, which mandates a 30 percent average reduction over the 2019 baseline by 2030 and a 15 percent improvement by 2025. At the same time, US standards demand a 27 percent overall vehicle reduction in CO2 by 2027 over a 2017 baseline, including a 5% cut in engine-out CO2. Meanwhile, China, India, Mexico and Brazil are adopting Euro VI equivalent standards from 2020 alongside GHG and fuel efficiency regulations.

It all adds up to an increasingly challenging commercial vehicle landscape, particularly as the downward pressure on NOx and other pollutants such as hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulates is also intensifying. The US Environmental Protection Agency recently announced its Cleaner Trucks Initiative which, in line with the CARB low NOx demonstration program, aims to cut NOx significantly by 2024/2027.  Corresponding plans in the EU also require large reductions in tail-pipe out NOx.

Garrett, with eight decades of leadership in commercial vehicles engine boosting, is set to play a key role alongside its global customer base in engine programs dedicated to lowering CO2 output while simultaneously improving NOx control. Central to this will be turbo systems optimized to deliver better fuel economy, drive effective EGR and create the conditions for better aftertreatment.

For Garrett engineers, this means accelerating the pace of innovation across all turbo architectures, including wastegate, variable geometry and 2-stage systems. Latest developments include a super-durable Double Axle Variable Nozzle Turbine (DAVNT) turbo capable of operating above 800oC, plus a host of advances with the potential to deliver significant fuel economy (FE) benefits.

For example, ball bearing cartridges improve both steady state efficiency and transient performance and can yield a 1-2 percent increase in fuel economy, a new Garrett e-wastegate system helps deliver up to 2 percent, while the latest 2-stage series design could enable heavy-duty Miller cycle benefits, a solution that could improve efficiency by up to 6 percent.

In addition, latest compressor design updates are increasing flow range, enhancing rated power capability of the engine and enabling higher low end torque, with improvements in compressor efficiency of up to 3 percent at road load helping to maximize fuel efficiency.

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